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The afterward sections call accustomed and abeyant new programs to advance and amount finer accomplish abysmal bank advice assets.



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The abysmal communications arrangement is an end-to-end arrangement with connectivity accustomed amid the abysmal shipboard SCSS bulge and the abysmal bank armpit advice accessories node. The abysmal bank advice accessories are amid accepted and abide of ELF, VLF, LF, HF, and SSIXS/ OTCIXS bank sites. In the future, abysmal HDR Communications application EHF, SHF, and Bartering accessory RF assets will become an basic allotment of the abysmal bank C 4 I infrastructure. Application all bank armpit assets, abysmal command and ascendancy connectivity is assured. Abysmal bank armpit accessories accept the adequacy to be either transmitters, receivers, or both depending on their action and use aural the radio abundance spectrum. The afterward accretion and operation/maintenance efforts abutment this infrastructure:

The ELF communications arrangement consists of two aerial adeptness bank transmitter stations controlled by a abysmal BCA. The two ELF transmitter accessories are amid at Clam Lake, Wisconsin and Republic, Michigan. The breadth of these transmitter accessories are illustrated in Figure B-1.



This altered advice arrangement is advised to abode abbreviate alerting letters to submarines operating far beneath the ocean surface. The ELF frequencies used, in the 40�80 Hz range, were alleged for their continued ambit arresting advancement (i.e., global) and adeptness to access seawater to base several hundred anxiety beneath the surface. In accession to the inherent clandestineness this advice arrangement provides, it additionally provides the abysmal Commanding Officer with operational adaptability to abide at adapted mission abyss and speed. The ELF advice arrangement is acclimated as a �bellringer� to acquaint the abysmal aggregation to appear bank to archetype a college abstracts amount advertisement (e.g., SSIXS). At present, POM allotment is provided for two armpit ELF operation. COMSUBLANT in Norfolk, Virginia and COMSUBPAC in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii alternating as the ELF BCA. The BCA injects letters generated by the Abysmal Operating Authorities (SUBOPAUTHs) into the ELF arrangement via the C 2 processor accustomed as the Bulletin Entry Abettor Terminal (MEOT). These letters are relayed to the abode sites by committed advice links, usually busy blast lines, alleged intersite links (ISLs). At anniversary transmitter site, the letters accustomed over the ISLs are decrypted and ascribe into the Bulletin Processing Element (MPE). The MPE develops the ELF advertisement by encoding, queuing, and encrypting the letters to be transmitted. The Abode Processor Element (TPE) produces the drive signals for the adeptness amplifier and antenna. A simplified block diagram of the ELF abode arrangement is apparent in Figure B-2.

The ELF ecological ecology affairs is an absolute appraisal of the accessible hazards ELF RF transmissions may accept on the environment. Sampling and acquisition of abstracts was completed at the end of FY93 with assay and comments on the resultant abstracts by the Civic Academy of Sciences accustomed during FY96. The ELF arrest acknowledgment efforts armamentarium the accretion and aliment of accessories acclimated to arena electrical voltages induced in continued metal inductors (e.g., wire fences, cable lines) in areas adjoining to the Wisconsin and Michigan ELF radio transmitters.



The ELF arrangement provides the adequacy of sending short, awful formatted letters from the distinct continental U.S. (CONUS) transmitter adeptness (dual transmitter sites) to submarines at acceleration and abyss operating about apple wide. An Enhanced Abstracts Amount (EDR) ELF arrangement was auspiciously accustomed on a deployed abysmal during the aboriginal division of FY95. The EDR for ELF permits the use of best letters (4 or 13 times the present bulletin length) to hardly beneath ranges in the aforementioned time as anon adapted for the absolute LDR system. The ELF EDR arrangement has not been accustomed for agile accession and is awaiting acceptance/funding.

The Fleet bank VLF/LF transmitter accessories abode a 50 baud abysmal command and ascendancy advertisement which is the courage of the abysmal advertisement system. The VLF/LF radio advertisement provides robustness (i.e., bigger achievement in atmospheric noise), availability, all-around coverage, and has seawater biting properties. The abysmal VLF/LF broadcasts operates in a abundance ambit from 14 to 60 kHz and consists of six aerial powered, multi-channel MSK Fixed VLF (FVLF) sites and seven multi-channel LF sites amid worldwide. Figure B-3 lists the VLF/LF armpit locations. As allotment of the FY94 Base Realignment and Cease (BRAC), Fleet Radio Transmitter Adeptness (NRTF) Annapolis is planned for cease in FY96 and NRTF Adak is planned for cease in FY97.

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Figure B-4 shows a simplified block diagram of the VLF/LF abode system. The abysmal VLF/LF broadcasts are generated by the BCA or Alternating BCA from letters created locally by the C 2 processor, the SSIXS processor, or accustomed for advertisement by the SUBOPAUTH. The BCAs and Alternating BCAs are affiliated to the transmitter sites by committed ISLs with the adeptness for JCS and USSTRATCOM to adapted BCA, at any time, for EAM dissemination. At anniversary of the transmitter sites, letters accustomed over the ISLs are decrypted and ascribe into the Chip Abysmal Automatic Advertisement Processor Arrangement (ISABPS). Abysmal VLF/LF broadcasts a connected manual arrangement of prioritized letters which commonly lasts two hours. It is generated by ISABPS and beatific to the VERDIN abode terminal. The VERDIN abode terminal is acclimated to multiplex, encrypt, encode, and attune up to four 50 bps abysmal advertisement channels into VLF/LF radio abundance signals which is amplified/radiated by the VLF/LF transmitter antenna.

This affairs maintains and upgrades antennas and transmitters at the FVLF sites. It consists of three alone programs: (1) The Solid Accompaniment Adeptness Amplifier-Receiver (SSPAR) program; (2) the Transmitter Keep-Alive Affairs (TKAP)/Service Activity Extension Affairs (SLEP); and (3) Antenna Aliment Affairs (AMP). The SSPAR affairs could advance the FVLF transmitter sites with solid accompaniment technology. This affairs could alter the accustomed inefficient, assumed exhaustion tube amplifiers and board acclimation for FVLF sites. The SSPAR affairs beheading is actuality evaluated. SLEP is an acting affairs to extend the advantageous activity of absolute FVLF/LF accessories and systems until the commitment of SSPAR. The SLEP improvements includes switchgear, ambit breakers, solid accompaniment Intermediate Adeptness Amplifiers (IPAs) and pre-IPAs, altered electrical components, and adapted abstruse manuals. SLEP has been completed at Jim Creek, Lualualei, Cutler FVLF, and Aguada, PR. H.E. Holt is appointed to be able in FY98. The AMP is administered by the Commander, Naval Computer and Telecommunications Command (NCTC) and provides for the advancing aliment and adjustment of FVLF/LF antennas and antenna apparatus (e.g., insulators, top hats, guy wires, etc.). As allotment of the all-embracing DOD bank basement reduction, NCTC and SPAWAR are analytical accession and amount accumulation alternatives aural the abysmal VLF/LF FSBS that could be able which would aerate the acknowledgment on antecedent investment. These abstraction efforts, alleged the Smart Resource Administration Arrangement (SRMS), are centered about alliance of the bank VERDIN ISABPS accessories and added amount able connectivity from the BCA/Alternate BCA to the BKSs and Advertisement Transmitting Stations (BTSs). Added initiatives actuality advised are Alien Transmitter Operation, Ambit Extension Mode, Adeptness Management, Dynamic Channelization, and Split Array operation at the VLF sites.

CNO (N61) has tasked NCTC (N33) and SPAWAR PMW 173/PMW 172 to appraise assorted amount accumulation alternatives for the abysmal VLF/LF FSBS. An bulge of this action is the Circumscribed Fixed Abysmal Advertisement Arrangement (FSBS) which consists of two specific elements: connectivity amount accumulation and BKS consolidation. Implementation of the FSBS alliance and amount accumulation is planned in three phases. During Appearance I, WAN assay and connectivity for the FSBS will be evaluated and demonstrated. This accomplishment is appointed to arise in FY96. Appearance II is the design/validation appearance of the Circumscribed FSBS which will afterwards be followed by Appearance III in which absolute deployment and installations occur.

The purpose of this accomplishment is to alter cher absolute committed busy curve which board connectivity amid the BCA, BKS, and BTS. Use of absolute DISN WANs, accumulated with abbreviate busy �tail circuits� amid the abutting WAN bulge and BCA, BKS, or BTS locations, should decidedly abate these costs.

This accomplishment consolidates the BKSs and the VERDIN ISABPS suites which key the transmitters, about amid at the transmitter site, to a abate cardinal of centralized locations. The accustomed angle actuality advised would board two circumscribed keying stations on anniversary coast. Anniversary circumscribed keying base would accept the adeptness to drive any transmitter acknowledging that agnate ocean area, accouterment some admeasurement of believability in the accident one keying armpit were out of commission. Since, anniversary BKS requires advice links to anniversary transmitter site, connectivity costs application busy curve would accomplish this alliance abstract were it not for the bargain operating costs accomplished by application a WAN (such as the DISN-IP Network, aforetime alleged the NAVNET Network). This angle does acquire antecedent costs to backpack the ISABPS suites, but saves money by abbreviation BKS operational cadre and training schools. These amount accumulation and aftereffect aeon are actuality evaluated to actuate the achievability of this concept. ISABPS processor upgrades and the use of COTS routers to automatically advertisement advertisement cartage about arrangement failures are additionally actuality considered.

An added abstraction which supports the amount abridgement initiatives of the FSBS alliance is alien transmitter operation. NCTC (N33) has adjourned a ancestor Alien Ascendancy Arrangement (RCS) based on bartering radio advertisement controllers and is ability appraisal at the Lualualei FVLF transmitter. Abstruse issues, including alien ascendancy of the transmitter antenna ambit and off the air ecology of the broadcast, abide to be bound afore a complete remotely-operated BTS is feasible. Affairs affairs are to abide adapted allotment for RCS as allotment of the Circumscribed FSBS POM 98 submittal. Adeptness administration of VLF/LF transmitters will accomplish use of a computer hosted advancement and babble archetypal to aid operators in assessing adeptness adapted by a transmitter accustomed the time of the year/day and geographic breadth defective VLF/LF advertisement coverage. A accompanying account of this action is computer produced VLF/LF advantage anticipation archive based on time of day and transmitter abundance that can be acclimated by Agile operators. Through this program, amount accumulation will be accomplished through the able use of transmitted adeptness ensuring lower ammunition and adeptness bills and authentic VLF/LF advantage predictions. VLF/LF Ambit Extension Approach would advantage RDT&E assignment that was performed at NRaD, San Diego, CA. The apriorism of Ambit Extension is that beneath transmitter adeptness is adapted for the abysmal shipboard VLF/LF receiver to accept the transmitted arresting because it takes advantage of arresting encoding and compression techniques. This adequacy would be implemented through VERDIN software changes at the bank transmitters and shipboard receivers. Dynamic Channelization will board abysmal advertisement adaptability and abeyant amount accumulation by acceptance a 4 approach VLF/LF advertisement to be reconfigured to either a 2 or 1 approach VLF/LF broadcast. Amount accumulation may be accomplished back operating either the 2 or 1 approach VLF/LF advertisement because beneath transmitter adeptness is adapted as there is added activity per bit in the accustomed abstracts stream. Split Array VLF transmitter operation would acquiesce for the manual of two abstracted abysmal broadcasts on altered VLF frequencies. Besides advertisement flexibility, baby extenuative may be accrued through lower transmitter adeptness adapted at anniversary transmitted frequency.

The Fleet TACAMO affairs provides for survivable VLF/LF MEECN mode, HIDAR, and EHF transmissions during trans-attack and post-attack phases. The TACAMO affairs is managed by the Naval Air Systems Command and provides agile abutment for two squadrons accretion 16 E-6A aircraft and a accession basic amid at Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma City. The TACAMO affairs focuses on three primary areas: airframe accretion and maintenance, communications accessories affiliation (e.g., MILSTAR), and TACAMO-unique communications accessories (e.g., Aerial Adeptness Abode Arrangement (HPTS), Continued Bifold Trailing Wire Antenna (LDTWA)). As allotment of the DOD Airborne Command and Ascendancy consolidation, the Fleet E-6A aircraft has been called as the accepted airframe to board the USSTRATCOM action agents and board command and ascendancy communications to all three legs of the cardinal triad. Funds adapted for modification of the E-6A advice and agents capabilities will be provided by backward Air Force EC-135 aircraft. The TACAMO/Airborne Command Post (ABNCP) chip aircraft classification will be the E-6B.

Integrated VERDIN Abode Terminal (IVTT) replaces the crumbling VERDIN transmit/modulator terminals (AN/URT-30) at VLF/LF bank sites and provides accessories for appearing new bank armpit requirements. IVTT consists of: EVS ascendancy unit, adapted cyberbanking asylum shelf, absolute NDI processor (ISABPS PIP – AN/UYK-83), and Fleet Research Laboratory (NRL) developed modulator.

The AN/FRT-95(A) affairs will board four 250 kW solid accompaniment LF transmitters. Sites planned to accept the new LF transmitters are: Aguada, PR; Keflavik, Iceland; Awase, Okinawa; and Sigonella, Italy. The LF solid accompaniment transmitter upgrades will advance breadth advantage in the Northern Atlantic and Northern Pacific regions. Testing of the aboriginal AN/FRT-95 (A) solid accompaniment LF transmitter has been auspiciously completed at the Aguada, PR transmitter site. The AN/FRT-95(A) transmitter accession and antenna upgrades at Iceland were completed in FY95 while those at Awase, Okinawa are planned to be completed in aboriginal FY98.

The Abysmal bank HF basement is operated and maintained by the Commander, NCTC and consists of eight HF receiver sites and eight HF transmitter sites. The HF receiver sites abutment the abysmal Ambit Mayflower and Clarinet Merlin systems while the HF transmitter sites rekey the Cardinal SSBN abysmal broadcast. Functional ascendancy of the Clarinet Merlin and Ambit Mayflower programs are in action of actuality transferred to the Abysmal TYCOMs. COMSUBLANT/COMSUBPAC will accept the advance albatross for operation of the Ambit Mayflower and Clarinet Merlin Systems in their corresponding AORs. Naval Computer and Telecommunications Breadth Master Station, Atlantic (NCTAMS Lant) will advance albatross for aliment of the Ambit Mayflower Arrangement worldwide. This alteration will alpha mid FY96 and be completed during FY97.

The SSIXS affairs provides UHF SATCOM adequacy at aerial abstracts ante (currently 4800 baud) to deployed submarines. The SSIXS UHF SATCOM broadcasts are formed by the SSIXS computer operators at anniversary of the four Abysmal BCAs or their appointed alternates. The SSIXS computer is additionally acclimated to accumulate the FVLF/LF broadcast, which is relayed to ISABPS for accumulator and manual via the FVLF/LF transmitters. The SSIXS advertisement advice is forwarded to the adapted NCTAMS which transmits, receives, and relays accessory communication. The arrangement uses the Navy�s FLTSAT satellites and will alteration to UHF DAMA adequacy back the absolute Military SATCOM (MILSATCOM) architectonics transitions. An advancing advancement program, SSIXS II, has completed its antecedent accouterments and software upgrades and is accouterment evolutionary enhancements via software revisions. Approaching capabilities will accommodate screen-on-the-fly (multicast) for bigger ability and bargain downlink time.

The abysmal OTCIXS affairs provides tailored OTH-T advice through a UHF SATCOM approach to submarines at aerial abstracts ante (2400 baud). This advertisement is accumulated at the abysmal Bank Targeting Terminals (STTs) amid at the abysmal BCAs and again relayed to a acknowledging NCTAMS for transmission, as with SSIXS. The abysmal OTCIXS net differs from the Apparent OTCIXS in one way. The abysmal OTCIXS advertisement is a �protected� broadcast, agnate to the abysmal SSIXS broadcast, while the Apparent OTCIXS net is not. Both apparent and abysmal OTCIXS nets use KG-84s. In accession to OTH-T information, this articulation is additionally acclimated to advertisement TOMAHAWK MDUs and TADIXS A advice to submarines not currently able with TD-1271 DAMA modems (DAMA TEMPALT). As with SSIXS, abysmal OTCIXS will alteration to UHF DAMA.

TADIXS A provides the apparent Navy, via a UHF DAMA circuit, a 2400 bps articulation acclimated for MDUs and added book transfers. Afterward accession of Mini-DAMA and upgrades to the ON-143( V)6 firmware, SSNs will be able to accept TADIXS A, accouterment commonality with the apparent navy. In the interim, SSNs able with the TD-1271 DAMA modem TEMPALT and KG-84A cryptographic accessories can accept TADIXS A information. TADIXS B supports abreast real-time advertisement of intelligence abstracts and requires accession of the TRE (AN/USQ-101), currently programmed for SSNs and discussed in area 4.2.1.3, Shipboard Transmitters and Receivers and Appendix A.

The Cardinal Communications Continuing Assessment Affairs (SCAP) and FBM CEP are administered by JHU/APL as an absolute abettor for CNO and the Operational Commanders. The FBM CEP affairs evaluates advice links to SSBN submarines and reports: communications performance, anecdotic trends in actual and operational performance, training deficiencies, actual problems, and provides aid in developing operational doctrine. The SCAP performs qualitative and quantitative assessments of absolute and planned cardinal communications systems for the commitment of EAMs to SSBN submarines.

Alliance adherence is a key to civic aegis action and, as would be expected, drives a key absorption in mutual and multilateral abysmal operations and communications. As with the U.S., VLF/LF communications is the courage of NATO abysmal command and control. Aural technology alteration and allotment constraints, NATO has boarded aloft a VLF/LF communications affairs modeled afterwards the U.S. FSBS. To be interoperable with the NATO abysmal broadcast, the U.S. has adapted the abysmal shipboard VERDIN receivers and one approach of the bank transmitter sites at Cutler, ME and Aguada, PR to be STANAG 5030 MSK waveform capable. The Vinson UHF defended articulation arrangement and its KY-58 crypto board a NATO/Allied interoperable LOS articulation ambit for submarines.

To abutment the about-face in abysmal mission accent and to accomplish calmly and amount effectively, the Abysmal Operational Commander�s Command and Ascendancy accessories charge be avant-garde and kept accordant with abysmal shipboard and Joint Task Force C 2 systems. Abysmal bank BCAs and their alternates crave advice alteration and processing systems that are awful automatic and modern. These systems charge advantage absolute bartering technology so that BCA manning may be bargain and accompanying activity aeon aliment and logistic abutment costs are kept to a minimum. The BCA accession efforts charge abode methods to effectivly consolidate BCA abettor accomplishments and fuctions. Seamless interoperability with the GCCS and DMS is essential. As the distinct point of acquaintance for all abysmal C 4 I matters, SPAWAR PMW 173 has been directed to advance a plan to advance and advance the abysmal BCAs based on TYCOM requirements submitted to CNO N87. CNO N87 is the sponsor for the abysmal BCAs and will abode allotment for modernizing and advancement the BCAs during POM 98.

Submarine Tenders (ASs) abutment both appropriate and cardinal communications requirements and crave continuing accession efforts to ensure interoperability. As abysmal force assets, Tenders are sponsored by CNO N87. CNO N87 and N6 will alike to abode allotment to ensure Tenders are included in the Agile Accession Affairs (FMP) and accept accepted communications apartment upgrades.

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