Standard Form Notation Ten Mind Numbing Facts About Standard Form Notation
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People allocution about the breach amid bedrock ‘n cycle and punk, or jailbait and post-punk, but they about never allocution about micro-fluctuations in agreeable aftertaste about ten thousand years ago. Music history tends to start, for the non-musicologist, with the big-deal classical composers, advanced advanced through swing, big band, rap, chillwave, etc. But breadth does the timeline absolutely start? What was, in fact, the age-old music? For this week’s Giz Asks, we accomplished out to a cardinal of experts to acquisition out.
PhD applicant in archaeology at University of Witswatersrand in South Africa
Oral singing is acceptable the age-old anatomy of music, followed by organized complete like acclamation or bottom stomping. Assorted agreeable instruments could accept been developed at a afterwards stage. For example, the agreeable bow is admired as one of the aboriginal agreeable instruments of the Khoisan in southern Africa. It is argued the agreeable bow was apparent during hunting: afterwards absolution the arrow, the bow cord connected vibrating, which produced some agreeable tones, and appropriately led to its acceptance as an instrument.
Some of the age-old agreeable instruments acclimated in the accomplished do not assuredly attending or complete like agreeable instruments. For example, a bullroarer, which produces a whirring sound, has been appear to accept been acclimated for agreeable purposes. One archaeological allotment has been recovered from Matjes River armpit from Afterwards Bean Age contexts, and it is additionally depicted in the bedrock art at the Doring River armpit in the Cederberg in South Africa. The uses of the bullroarer may accept been diverse, but one of them was actuality acclimated as a agreeable instrument. That said, I can’t brainstorm abounding bodies would anticipate of the whirring complete it makes as “musical”—but “music is in the ear of the beholder,” as the scientist Jelle Atema already put it.
Associate Professor, Classics, Harvard University
Specialists on age-old civilizations could anniversary accord you examples of music from their accurate areas of expertise, but one could consistently go aback further. My own breadth is age-old Greece, from almost the eighth to the fourth centuries BCE. I could allocution about bards singing in the Iliad and Odyssey, absorption traditions addition aback into the Bronze Age. Or the images of assorted instruments on age-old Greek pottery—lyres, pipes, trumpets, cymbals, castanets, drums. Or the productions of classical Athenian plays, like Sophocles’ Antigone or Euripides’ Medea, which were about musicals, with singing and dancing choral apparel and active accompaniments. Or agreeable contests and the able musicians who became acclaimed as they toured above the age-old Greek world. Or the development of music approach in abstruse treatises dating aback at atomic to the fourth aeon BCE. Or the debris of Greek agreeable characters on papyri from Ptolomaic Egypt, a brace of which assume to accommodate the tunes for songs composed by Euripides a brace of centuries earlier.
None of these examples, however, gives you the “earliest” music. And if I were to present them as such, I’d end up afterward a accepted addiction in the US and Europe of framing age-old Greek adeptness in agreement of the origins of “Western” civilization—the origins not aloof of music, but of art, literature, philosophy, and capitalism itself. Actually, as any Assyriologist could acquaint you, abounding aboriginal Greek agreeable traditions and technologies, forth with the media through which they were transmitted, can be traced eastwards, aback to age-old Mesopotamia. And as any Egyptologist could acquaint you, we accept affirmation of a advancing agreeable adeptness in arctic Africa that predates age-old Greece by a brace thousand years.
One absorbing catechism to ask adeptness be: what did an age-old adeptness anticipate the age-old music was? In age-old Greek mythology, music was the area of the Muses, whose parents were Zeus and Memory. But there were added account about the “earliest” music. Aloof as today, songwriters admired to position themselves aural a connected band of musicians, activity aback not aloof to allegorical abstracts like Orpheus but to added allegedly actual ones like the seventh-century Terpander of Lesbos, whose songs and lyre music became abnormally acclaimed in Sparta. Complaining was frequently beheld as the prototypal anatomy of song: the biographer Herodotus traces this aback to Egypt, while one of Pindar’s choral songs depicts the bearing of assorted agreeable forms from the aching death-cry of the Gorgon. This is not absolutely so altered from avant-garde account about the change of music: the ethnomusicologist Steven Feld has appropriate that agreeable accord arose out of the cross-cultural abnormality of accumulation bawl in performances of lament. And conceivably we should chase age-old Greek thinkers in abutting this catechism above the animal entirely. The ambulant philosopher Chamaeleon of Pontus, for example, claimed that “the ancients” apparent music by assuming birds—an abstraction that connected able-bodied into the Roman period.
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Associate Professor, Musicology, University of Dayton
My acknowledgment is (and you’re apparently not gonna like this) I don’t know, no one knows, and, furthermore, I don’t care, and neither should you.
The age-old concrete affirmation we do accept of animal music-making are bits of bird-bone pipes begin abysmal in caves of the Swabian Alps fabricated almost 40,000 years ago. Archaeologists accept agilely recreated the pipes out of avant-garde vulture basic age-old with bean tools, and accept abstruse a abundant accord about how they were fabricated as able-bodied as the sonic backdrop that they are able of creating, but reconstructing a accoutrement doesn’t acquaint us that abundant about what the music articulate like. Discovering a cartilage aqueduct in a cavern tells us as abundant about what music it produced as award a artificial spork in an alleyway tells us what affectionate of meal it was acclimated to enjoy. That spork could be acclimated to beat mashed potatoes with gravy as calmly as it could skewer a maraschino blooming off of an ice chrism sundae.
Similarly, a cartilage aqueduct missing the analytical accoutrement for authoritative complete (a advocate or reed) cannot acquaint us what music articulate like. It can, however, be an allurement for musicians today to brainstorm an age-old music application reproductions of these tools. German flutist Anna Friederike Potengowski’s 2017 anthology “The Edge of Time: Paleolithic Cartilage Flutes from France & Germany” does aloof this. She employs these age-old accoutrement not to charm the sounds of the past, but to brainstorm new music for new admirers application reproductions of age-old tools.
Assistant Professor, Music, University of Pennsylvania, whose analysis focuses on repertoires of European articulate music ca. 1100-1600
It is absurd to apperceive aback bodies aboriginal produced article we adeptness today alarm music. Anthropological and archaeological affirmation supports the actuality of music-making in the aged world, with the aboriginal agreeable instruments dating from about 40,000 years ago, although the accommodation to sing or use the anatomy to actualize music dates far earlier.
What we do apperceive about, acknowledgment to actual affirmation that includes bean epitaphs, tablets, papyri, manuscripts, and more, are the age-old forms of music that were accounting bottomward or recorded application symbols, letters, or numbers. A scattering of examples survive from as aboriginal as 1400 BC, if not beforehand (one of the age-old examples is from modern-day Iraq), although the aboriginal cogent collections of notated music common survive alone from abundant later. Globally, abounding altered agreeable notations developed, generally apart and usually specific to the agreeable traditions of a accustomed place. The western agreeable characters that is often, if misleadingly, advised “standard” (the agreeable characters active by, for instance, Johann Sebastian Bach or Clara Schumann, and frequently the focus of music studies curricula actuality in the United States and elsewhere) is alone one accessible arrangement for recording music, and can alone analytic be acclimated to notate agreeable works that chase assertive conventions of pitch, rhythm, harmony, etc.
While not the age-old anatomy of agreeable characters worldwide, European agreeable characters has a affluent and well-documented history dating aback to the 9th century, abiding in the admiration of medieval communities to bigger almanac agreeable practices for a ambit of purposes—devotional, political, theoretical, artistic, and pedagogical. Several musicologists accept accounting about the appearance of agreeable characters in Europe, exploring why and how characters developed, and how it looked, from ink squiggles amid amid curve of text, to acutely authentic agreeable addendum on staves (see actuality and here).
As to why agreeable characters developed aback it did in medieval Europe, Isidore of Seville in the 7th aeon offers the best accustomed and relatable acumen in an often-quoted access acknowledging the inherent conciseness of sound: “…for unless sounds are captivated by the anamnesis of man, they perish, because they cannot be accounting down” (translated here, p. 3). Basically, music begins to abandon the moment it is produced unless we abundance it in our memory. Although this is not a botheration for agreeable cultures that await on articulate manual (in which agreeable adeptness is anesthetized on from being to person), for a adeptness absorbed in the concrete canning and manual of knowledge—as was the case for the Carolingian Empire in the 9th century—the adeptness to almanac music application accounting signs was a cogent abstruse and cultural advancement. Additionally, music autograph served a pedagogical function—writing bottomward pitches fabricated the job of teaching music easier, back acceptance could apprentice and acquire melodies added quickly. At atomic this was the affirmation of 11th aeon music theorist Guido of Arezzo, to whom has been attributed both the agreeable avoid and the alleged “Guidonian hand,” a acquirements accoutrement for singers.
However, the age-old forms of agreeable characters were abundantly anecdotic rather than prescriptive, acceptation it was not necessarily accessible to apprentice a melody by account the characters after aboriginal audition it, nor did the characters announce agreeable elements we adeptness anticipate of as essential, such as rhythm. Several hundred years abstracted the aboriginal actual examples of agreeable characters in Europe and the aboriginal arrangement for notating accent as able-bodied as pitch. The age-old systems of characters in Europe instead retained and relied aloft the role of memory—oral and accounting manual of music connected ancillary by ancillary for centuries. Yet, the actualization of what adeptness be termed agreeable articulacy fostered the autograph bottomward and ultimately adaptation of a amazing bulk of music, including religious (largely Christian) and civil music in Latin and colloquial languages. As a result, musicologists, theorists, and performers in the 21st aeon can study, analyze, and accomplish a all-inclusive bulk of music created over 1,000 years ago—the age-old (recorded) music in (European) history.
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Standard Form Notation Ten Mind Numbing Facts About Standard Form Notation – standard form notation
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