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Peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) has important but ailing accepted roles in borderline afraid arrangement (PNS) myelin. Myelin provides the careful sheath to axons, confined to facilitate accelerated advice of electric impulses (1). In the PNS, bunched myelin is formed back blur tongues extend from myelinating Schwann beef to spirally blanket about an adjoining axon. The acclimatized structural alignment of myelin membranes is analytical for able assumption conduction.



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PNS bunched myelin membranes are composed of specific lipid and protein apparatus that are capital to its action (1). The lipid bilayers of bunched myelin accommodate aerial concentrations of cholesterol and sphingolipids. Proteins begin in PNS bunched myelin accommodate myelin protein aught (MPZ), PMP22, and myelin basal protein (MBP) (2). Although the arresting ultrastructure of myelin has been advised for abounding decades application assorted forms of imaging and drop techniques (3–6), the atomic mechanism(s) amenable for the accumulation and aliment of this circuitous blur accumulation is still actuality investigated.

PMP22 is a tetraspan circling basic blur protein that is awful bidding (2 to 5% by weight of myelin proteins) in myelinating Schwann beef (7). Regulated announcement and able folding of PMP22 are capital for the development and aliment of accustomed myelin in Schwann beef (7–9). A spectrum of ancestral borderline neuropathies is associated with aberrations in the PMP22 gene. These disorders accommodate the best accepted (1:3500) affiliated borderline neuropathy Charcot-Marie-Tooth ache blazon 1A (CMT1A) that occurs with trisomy of PMP22 (10), constant in overproduction of the protein. Hereditary neuropathy with accountability to burden palsies (HNPP), with a heterozygous abatement of PMP22, after-effects in underexpression of the protein. CMT1E is acquired by missense mutations of PMP22 that adapt the protein amino acerbic sequence. Collectively, these defects affect 1 of 5000 individuals (11–18). Assumption biopsies from CMT1A patients actualization that the proliferative Schwann beef about axons resemble “onion bulbs” (19). Accident of one of the two PMP22 alleles after-effects in HNPP, in which PNS myelin has adapted “sausage-shape swellings that arise to be acquired by aberrant blur alignment and/or myelin decompaction” (20, 21). Added disorders of broadly capricious severity are acquired by ascendant heterozygous PMP22 missense mutations (CMT1E), including the “trembler-J” (TrJ) L16P alteration of PMP22, which leads to aberrant interactions amid the myelin sheath and the axon, abnormally attenuate myelin, and aberrant myelin wrapping (22). The affiliation amid ache phenotypes and aberrant archetype cardinal or missense mutations in PMP22 highlights the accent of this blur protein in myelin function.



Amino acerbic changes encoded by missense mutations agitate the trafficking of PMP22 to the claret blur by accretion the adeptness of the protein to misfold, constant in targeting by the endoplasmic cloth associated abasement (ERAD) arrangement for auctioning (23–30). However, abasement of misfolded PMP22 is acceptable not 100% able (26, 31–34). Thus, the severity of the phenotypes acquired by PMP22 point mutations is accepted to aftereffect from a accumulated accident of anatomic PMP22 at the claret blur and cellular accent induced by misfolded protein. Additionally, some PMP22 ache mutants do adeptness the claret blur (28), suggesting that these mutants could anon agitate or adapt PMP22 functions in myelin membranes. All ache phenotypes constant from PMP22 mutations advance to dysmyelination and axonal accident (7, 11).

Although PMP22 plays an capital role in myelinating Schwann cells, its biochemical function(s) is not able-bodied characterized. Here, we actualization that PMP22 reconstituted into archetypal lipid bilayers causes the accumulation of protein-lipid superstructures that display morphological similarities to bunched myelin. These after-effects accede that PMP22 has an built-in accommodation to advance the alignment of blur ultrastructure. This is the aboriginal biochemical affirmation that abandoned PMP22 can adapt membranes, and provides mechanistic acumen into the action of PMP22 in PNS myelin.



In an attack to actuate the anatomy of PMP22, we began condensate trials to accomplish two-dimensional (2D) crystals. We reconstituted animal PMP22 into vesicles composed of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC)/egg sphingomyelin (ESM) (4:1 molar ratio) at a lipid-to-protein arrangement (LPR) of 1.0 (w/w) via dialysis to abolish the bactericide β-n-decylmaltoside (DM) present in the starting PMP22-containing detergent/lipid alloyed micelles [~4 birthmark percent (mol %) PMP22 about to absolute moles of lipid]. Although this action did not aftereffect in the accumulation of single-layered 2D crystals, appraisal by abrogating stain electron microscopy (EM) arise that there were calmly visualized lipid-protein assemblies that are audibly multilayered (Fig. 1, A to C, and table S1). This indicates that the band edges of these structures are apparent to accumulated solvent, area they are attainable to stain. These assemblies arise to allotment several structural ancestry with PNS myelin (see Discussion) and are conspicuously agnate to boilerplate assemblies celebratory the accumulation of myelin in calanoid copepods, which are bearcat planktonic crustaceans [see Figs. 4, 6, and 9 in the abstraction of Wilson and Hartline (35)]. We accordingly accredit to the PMP22-lipid superstructures as “myelin-like assemblies” (MLAs). MLAs were never empiric in ascendancy reconstitutions agitated out in the absence of PMP22 (Fig. 1, D and E, and table S2) or in reconstitutions application an altered tetraspan blur protein, the voltage sensor area of the animal KCNQ1 potassium approach (Q1-VSD) (Fig. 1F and table S2). MLAs were not empiric to anatomy back a agnate blur reconstitution was activated to PMP22 application the lipid POPC, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), POPC/1-palmitoyl-2-oleoylphophatidylglycerol (POPG) (6:1 molar ratio), or DPPC/dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG) (6:1 molar ratio). No MLAs were begin in PMP22 reconstitutions application either absolute or arctic academician lipids.

(A to C) Examples of protein-lipid MLAs created back PMP22 is reconstituted into 4:1 POPC/ESM vesicles via the dialysis adjustment and visualized by abrogating stain EM. (D) Representative angel of multilamellar vesicles (MLVs) able in the absence of protein via the dialysis adjustment [lipid-only ascendancy (LOC)]. (E) MLVs able by ad-lib bilayer accumulation through hydration of lipids with water. (F) Ascendancy assemblies absolute 4:1 POPC/ESM and the tetraspan VSD of KCNQ1 reconstituted via the dialysis method. Scale confined (all panels), 100 nm. (G) Altitude of the about allotment of MLAs present in a alternation of abrogating stain EM images of wild-type (WT) PMP22, LOC, MLVs, and the tetraspan VSD area of KCNQ1. All abandoned commodity counts were acclimatized to allotment of absolute counts for a accurate sample and were normalized to the allotment of absolute counts represented by MLAs in the WT PMP22 control, which was set to 1.0. Green, WT; red, LOC; blue, MLV; orange, VSD. (H) Sucrose acclivity appraisal of PMP22 reconstituted for 10 canicule after (−; top) or with ( ; bottom) lipids. Fractions were calm from top (low density) to basal (high density) and analyzed by SDS–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) with argent staining.

(A and B) Representative images of vitrified MLVs able in the absence of protein via the dialysis adjustment (A) or by ad-lib bilayer accumulation through hydration of lipids abandoned with baptize (B). (C and D) Examples of MLAs created back PMP22 is reconstituted into 4:1 POPC/ESM vesicles via the dialysis adjustment and visualized application cryo-EM. Scale confined (all panels), 100 nm.

(A) Representative tomographic slices (1.47 nm) of two MLAs. *, MLAs in image. (B and C) Two MLAs from (A). Arrowheads announce the ends of MLA. (D and E) Segmentation actualization of the agnate MLA from (B) and (C). Scale bars, 100 nm (A, B, and D) and 50 nm (C and E). (F) Archetypal demonstrating the aeroembolism captivated membranes of an MLA. (G) Archetypal demonstrating the nesting vesicles of MLVs.

Although MLAs were apparent abandoned in 4:1 POPC/ESM lipid reconstitutions that absolute PMP22 (tables S1 and S2), added types of assemblies, including vesicles, amassed vesicles, and protein aggregation, were additionally empiric in MLA-containing samples (fig. S1). To added anxiously characterize the protein-lipid reconstitutions, we quantified the altar apparent on the abrogating stain EM grids. These were classified as MLAs, confused MLAs (MLA-like assemblies composed of chaotic and/or “frayed” layers), vesicles, airtight vesicles (vesicles so abutting calm they could not be abandoned counted), and aggregates that may be composed of protein, lipids, or a accumulated of protein and lipids (Fig. 1G). In all reconstitution abstracts agitated out with PMP22, vesicles were consistently the best frequently empiric objects, followed by MLAs. Several added beneath accepted morphological classes of assemblies, including confused MLAs, airtight vesicles, and aggregates, were additionally sometimes observed. The vesicles formed in PMP22-lipid reconstitutions and lipid-only reconstitutions were of agnate actualization and admeasurement in abrogating stain EM.

To ensure that PMP22 is begin in the lipid assemblies, we conducted a blur abutment assay. PMP22 was subjected to the accepted reconstitution method, both with 4:1 POPC/ESM and, in parallel, in the complete absence of lipids. The constant mixtures were again loaded at the basal of a stepwise sucrose acclivity and centrifuged (Fig. 1H). PMP22 “reconstituted” after lipids charcoal pelleted in the high-density sucrose fractions, best acceptable as aggregated protein (Fig. 1H, top), admitting PMP22 reconstituted with lipids floats into the lower-density sucrose fractions, advertence that PMP22 is both abiding during the reconstitution appraisal and congenital into the blur assemblies (Fig. 1H, bottom).

To affirm that MLAs are not an antiquity of the abrogating staining agreement and to accretion added acumen into MLA ultrastructure, we vitrified PMP22 and ascendancy lipid reconstitutions and advised them application cryo–electron microscopy (cryo-EM). Visualizing the protein-free lipid reconstitutions in vitrified ice showed that multilamellar vesicles (MLVs) were the absolute assemblies formed by these reconstitutions (Fig. 2, A and B), admitting MLAs were never observed. However, back the artefact mixtures of PMP22-lipid reconstitutions were visualized by cryo-EM, we empiric the attendance of both MLAs and MLVs. The MLAs had agnate architectures as empiric in abrogating stain (Fig. 2, C and D). These arise to be aeroembolism vesicles that assemblage and blanket about anniversary other. By allegory three absolute MLA affairs arctic in vitrified ice, we abstinent an boilerplate interperiod band ambit of 153 ± 7 Å (fig. S2). The boilerplate interperiod band ambit for MLVs was 181 ± 7 Å. Figure S2 shows images of how these abstracts were made. The boilerplate interperiod band ambit of the MLAs is abate than the echo arrangement of ~177 to 185 Å abstinent in neutron and x-ray diffraction studies of complete beastly borderline nerves, which would be accepted because of the attendance of added blur proteins in vivo (5, 36–38); however, our abstinent echo is agnate to the echo arrangement (160 to 166 Å) arise for beastly axial afraid arrangement (CNS) bunched myelin (38). Cryo-EM appraisal thereby confirms that PMP22 can drive the accumulation of lipid-protein structures with circuitous architectures that are morphologically altered from the nested MLVs apparent in lipid-only reconstitutions.

Representative abrogating stain images of PMP22 reconstitution assays agitated out at LPRs (w/w) of 0.5 (A and B), 1.0 (C and D), and 10.0 (E and F). Scale confined (all panels), 100 nm. (G) Altitude of the about allotment of MLAs present in a alternation of abrogating stain EM images of WT PMP22 reconstitutions at LPRs (w/w) of 0.5, 1.0. 2.0, 4.0, and 10.0. All abandoned commodity counts were acclimatized to the allotment of absolute counts for a accurate sample and were normalized to the allotment of counts represented by MLAs in the LPR 1.0 sample, which was set to 1.0. Red, LPR 0.5; green, LPR 1.0; blue, LPR 2.0; orange, LPR 4.0; purple, LPR 10.0. Error confined represent SEM amid biological replicates. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01. Statistical acceptation is abandoned adumbrated for MLAs.

Although the abrogating stain and cryo-EM abstracts announce that MLAs are audible from MLVs, a cardinal of nonmutually absolute morphological possibilities abide for how MLAs are organized. For example, MLAs could be a single, compressed, coiled abscess agnate to myelin, a alternation of aeroembolism and captivated audible unilamellar vesicles, and/or ambagious bedding of lipid bilayers. To added carefully appraise the assay of MLAs, we acclimated cryo–electron tomography (cryo-ET). We generated tomograms (Fig. 3, A to C) of PMP22-induced MLAs that accustomed for the architectonics of a 3D archetypal by segmenting the body in anniversary z-slice (Fig. 3, D and F, and movies S1 and S2). We additionally generated a tomogram of an MLV as a allegory (fig. S3 and cine S3). These 3D reconstructions announce that the advised MLAs are audible from the architectonics of MLVs and are composed of compressed, stacked, and captivated unilamellar vesicles (Fig. 3F) and not nested vesicles (Fig. 3G). The 3D assay of the MLAs, although not an exact abridgment of the aeroembolism and ambagious membranes begin in Schwann cell–generated myelin, demonstrates that PMP22 can abet the flattening and wrapping of the vesicles into horseshoe-shaped stacks. These after-effects additionally affirm that MLAs carefully resemble superstructures empiric as intermediates in the action of myelin accumulation in calanoid copepods (35). The aloft after-effects announce that PMP22 can anon adapt blur alignment in vitro.

(A and B) Representative abrogating stain images of MLAs formed in a reconstitution appraisal application a Cys-less PMP22 aberrant (C42S, C53S, C85A, and C109A). Scale confined (A and B), 100 nm. (C) Altitude of the allotment of MLAs present in a alternation of abrogating stain EM images of WT and Cys-less PMP22 reconstitutions. All abandoned commodity counts were acclimatized to the allotment of absolute counts for a accurate sample and were normalized to the allotment of absolute counts represented by MLAs in the WT PMP22 control, which was set to 1.0. Green, WT control; red, Cys-less PMP22.

The best accepted blazon of CMTD, CMT1A, is acquired by the attendance of a third wild-type (WT) allele of PMP22 (10), constant in a college akin of PMP22 than in advantageous conditions. Assumption biopsies from CMT1A patients actualization that Schwann beef breed about axons after appropriately breeding myelin, akin onion bulbs (19). On the added hand, the attendance of abandoned a audible PMP22 allele after-effects in a altered phenotype, alleged HNPP, in which PNS myelin has aberrant agglomeration and abscess of the myelin sheath; the myelin defects empiric in HNPP arise to be acquired by added lamellae due to aberrant blur alignment about the crabbed articulation of the internode (20, 21). Together, these ancestral altitude authenticate that able levels of PMP22 in Schwann beef are analytical for able myelin accumulation in vivo (1, 8, 11, 39, 40).

To actuate whether MLA accumulation in vitro is additionally acute to PMP22 concentration, we performed a alternation of PMP22 reconstitution assays application a ambit of concentrations. LPRs ranged from 0.5 to 10 (w/w), spanning ~13 (8 mol % at LPR = 0.5) to ~256 (0.4 mol % at LPR = 10) lipid molecules per PMP22 in anniversary reconstitution mixture. The accomplished allotment of MLAs, 17 ± 5%, was begin at an LPR of 1.0, area there are ~26 lipid molecules per PMP22 (4 mol % protein) in the reconstitution appraisal (Fig. 4, C, D, and G, and table S3). At the everyman LPR of 0.5, area there are abandoned ~13 lipid molecules per PMP22 in the reconstitution admixture (that is, the accomplished absorption of PMP22), able MLAs were difficult to find. Instead, the sample absolute a cogent access in the cardinal of confused MLAs, area the lipid bilayers are not deeply adhered and accept a added frayed actualization (Fig. 4, A, B, and G, and table S3). These after-effects authenticate that college concentrations of PMP22 in the blur (that is, lower LPRs) do not advance to the accumulation of added MLAs but rather to a college accident of confused MLAs.

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Successively blurred the accumulated of PMP22 in the reconstitutions from an LPR of 1.0 to college LPRs led to progressively beneath MLAs. At an LPR of 2.0 (~51 lipid molecules per PMP22), we begin an MLA prevalence of abandoned 0.6 about to reconstitutions at an LPR of 1.0 (table S3). At an LPR of 4.0 (~102 lipid molecules per PMP22 in the reconstitution assay), the MLA prevalence was added bargain to 0.1 about to reconstitutions done at an LPR of 1.0 (table S3). At an LPR of 10, no MLAs were observed, although a baby cardinal of confused MLAs that do not accommodate deeply abridged layers were still apparent in the images (Fig. 4, E to G, and table S3). These studies affirm that PMP22 is amenable for MLA formation. Too little PMP22 leads to beneath MLAs, admitting too abundant PMP22 in the reconstitution appraisal increases the accumulation of confused MLAs. Although the admeasurement and appearance of the MLAs did not change as a action of the LPR, we did apprehension added airtight vesicles at LPRs of 0.5 and 4.0 (table S3). This suggests that PMP22 begin in vesicles that do not anatomy MLAs may be able to participate in trans-homophilic interactions that can account vesicles to stick together. These after-effects affirm a role for PMP22 in MLA accumulation and are evocative of in vivo allegation that the able akin of PMP22 is important for the actual admission and accumulation of myelin (8, 9, 40, 41). However, agenda that the LPR of abandoned MLAs may aberrate from the accumulated LPR acclimated in the reconstitution process.

To analyze which regions of PMP22 are adapted for MLA formation, we performed structure-function studies. We aboriginal activated whether disulfide band accumulation in PMP22 adeptness be accompanying to MLA formation. PMP22 contains four built-in cysteine residues (fig. S4). Two of these residues are begin in the extracellular bend and, based on affection amid PMP22 and claudin-15, are predicted to anatomy an intramolecular disulfide cross-link (42). We accompanying mutated all four cysteine residues, creating a “Cys-less” PMP22 (C42S, C53S, C85A, and C109A) (Fig. 5, A and B), and antiseptic it alongside WT PMP22. No cogent differences were begin amid the adeptness of Cys-less and WT PMP22 to anatomy MLAs (Fig. 5, A to C, and table S4). From these data, we accomplish that the accumulation of disulfide bonds is not adapted for MLA formation.

(A) Altitude of the about allotment of MLAs present in a alternation of abrogating stain EM images of PMP22 reconstitutions of WT PMP22 only, WT PMP22 incubated with GST-ECL1, and WT PMP22 incubated with GST-ECL2. Green, WT control; ablaze blue, GST-ECL1 WT PMP22 (1:1 molar ratio); aphotic blue, GST-ECL1 WT PMP22 (4:1 molar ratio); ablaze orange, GST-ECL2 WT PMP22 (1:1 molar ratio); aphotic orange, GST-ECL2 WT PMP22 (4:1 molar ratio). Error confined represent SEM amid biological replicates. **P < 0.01. Statistical acceptation is abandoned adumbrated for MLAs. (B) Altitude of the about allotment of MLAs present in a alternation of abrogating stain EM images of PMP22 reconstitutions of WT PMP22; ECL1 loop-mutants PMP22 D37K, L38A, or W39A; and ECL2 loop-mutant PMP22 W124A. Green, WT control; red, D37K; blue, L38A; orange, W39A; purple, W124A. For both panels, all abandoned commodity counts were acclimatized to the allotment of absolute counts for a accurate sample and were normalized to the allotment of absolute counts represented by MLAs in the WT PMP22 control. All ethics were normalized to the allotment of WT ascendancy MLAs, which was set to 1.0.

A antecedent abstraction application glutathione S-transferase (GST) admixture oligopeptides of PMP22 showed that its extracellular loops 1 and 2 (ECL1 and ECL2) could abutment both trans-homophilic interactions and trans-heterophilic interactions with MPZ (43). To assay the accent of ECL1 and ECL2 for MLA formation, we bidding and antiseptic GST-ECL1 and GST-ECL2 admixture proteins to use as a antecedent of aggressive bounden to abate any abeyant trans-homophilic bend interactions that anatomy aural the MLAs. We again additionally absolute that GST abandoned did not abate MLA accumulation by including GST at the aforementioned molar ratios in the PMP22-lipid reconstitution appraisal (fig. S5A and table S6). Back GST-ECL1 was included in PMP22 reconstitution assays at a 1:1 or a 4:1 molar arrangement (GST-ECL1/PMP22), MLA accumulation was bargain by 50 and 40%, respectively, compared to reconstitutions absolute PMP22 abandoned (Fig. 6A and table S5). Accession of GST-ECL2 to the PMP22-lipid reconstitutions at a arrangement of 1:1 (GST-ECL2/PMP22) bargain MLA accumulation by 60%, admitting a GST-ECL2–to–PMP22 arrangement of 4:1 led to a 98% abridgement (table S5). Reconstitution of GST, GST-ECL1, and GST-ECL2 abandoned (that is, after PMP22) did not advance to the accumulation of MLAs (table S7). The actuality that aerial concentrations of both GST-ECL1 and GST-ECL2 bargain MLA accumulation suggests that both loops are important for the in vitro action of PMP22.

As accession way to appraise the roles of ECL1 and ECL2 in MLA formation, we able and antiseptic PMP22 with mutations in either ECL1 or ECL2. PMP22 shares ~25% arrangement character with the claudins, including a claudin burden in ECL1 (42). In ECL1, abandoned residues from this burden were mutated (D37K, L38A, and W39A). Also, in ECL2, the awful conserved tryptophan balance (W124) was afflicted to alanine (see cartography diagram in fig. S4). The three PMP22 ECL1 mutants disrupted MLA accumulation about to a PMP22 WT ascendancy by 50, 50, and 70%, appropriately (Fig. 6B and table S7). However, the PMP22 W124A alteration in ECL2 was abnormally deleterious, actually abolition MLA accumulation (Fig. 6B and table S8). These after-effects affirm that PMP22’s extracellular loops accord to MLA formation, with ECL2 possibly accepting a added ascendant role. However, it charge be accustomed that these abstracts may not be the final chat on the roles of ECL1 and ECL2 in MLA accumulation because they acclimated recombinant protein in which PMP22 was not natively N-glycosylated at Asn41 amid in ECL1 (44). Nevertheless, the aloft after-effects accomplish it actual bright that the extracellular loops of PMP22 comedy a analytical role in MLA formation.

The L16P TrJ alteration amid in the aboriginal transmembrane area (TM1) of PMP22 causes astringent dysmyelinating neuropathy in both bodies and mice (fig. S4) (7, 45, 46). This alteration leads to aberrant adverse of Schwann cells, which are arrested at the adolescent premyelination stage. As a consequence, interactions amid the myelin sheath and the axon are disrupted, constant in attenuate myelin. Additionally, the boundless adolescent Schwann beef surrounding axons abort to anatomy bunched myelin (22). Biophysical studies accept apparent that the L16P alteration disrupts the structural alignment of the TM1 domain, abbreviation the thermodynamic adherence of PMP22 (47), with best of the aberrant protein adopting a partially bankrupt accompaniment (24, 42, 47). To assay the aftereffect of the L16P alteration on MLA formation, L16P PMP22 was antiseptic and acclimated in lipid reconstitution assays. Reconstitutions application this aberrant yielded beneath MLAs compared to WT ascendancy (Fig. 7A and table S9). The MLAs empiric in the L16P PMP22 reconstitutions were composed of about arranged layered assemblies that arise added chaotic than the MLAs created by WT PMP22 (Fig. 7, B and C, and table S9).

(A) Altitude of the about allotment of MLAs present in a alternation of abrogating stain EM images in both WT and L16P PMP22 reconstituted on the aforementioned day. All abandoned commodity counts were acclimatized to the allotment of absolute counts for a accurate sample and were normalized to the allotment of absolute counts represented by MLAs in the WT PMP22 control, which was set to 1.0. Green, WT control; red, L16P. (B and C) Representative abrogating stain EM images of the confused MLAs begin in L16P PMP22 reconstitutions. Scale confined (B and C), 100 nm.

PMP22 has one or added capital roles in myelinating Schwann cells, as reflected by its axial role in accepted forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth and accompanying dysmyelinating disorders (7, 11). However, the biochemical functions of PMP22 are not understood. Application in vitro reconstitution assays, we showed that PMP22 drives the accumulation of circuitous lipid-protein superstructures composed of aeroembolism and ample membranes that blanket about a axial vesicle. The accumulation of these structures is actually abased on the attendance of PMP22 and can be disrupted by capricious PMP22 concentration, introducing a ache mutation, including GST-ECL1 or GST-ECL2 admixture peptides during blur reconstitution, or mutating residues in ECL1 and ECL2.

The alignment of MLAs shares accepted ancestry with PNS myelin. Both MLAs and myelin accommodate blur compaction. For MLAs, the vesicles are flattened, admitting for PNS myelin, the bilayers that enclose the cytosol of a tongue-like blur addendum of a Schwann corpuscle are fatigued calm to cede the addendum agnate to double-layered tape. The bedfast bifold bilayers of both MLAs and developing myelin are again multilayered—by stacking the bedfast vesicles (in the case of MLAs) and by spirally wrapping the bedfast bifold bilayers about a annular articulation of an axon agnate to wrapping band about a ball (in the case of myelin). MLAs assume additionally to usually blanket about a axial annular vesicle, although the ample and bedfast vesicles blanket collectively and abandoned a audible time—no spiraling. Although differences amid the supramolecular alignment of MLAs and myelin remain, it is notable that the admittance of a audible myelin protein in reconstituted lipid bilayers is able of altering the alignment of constant blur assemblies so as to advise several ancestry that resemble key appearance of the alignment of PNS myelin. There is a antecedent address assuming that MBP in aqueous n-dodecylphosphocholine (DPC) micelles can adapt the alignment of bactericide into regions of alongside arrays (48). Thus, it seems acceptable that assorted myelin proteins accept important structural roles in establishing myelin architecture. However, because MBP is not a transmembrane protein, its abeyant aftereffect on myelin blur alignment is acceptable via a audible apparatus than PMP22. Considering the accent of myelin ultrastructure in assumption conductance, it is not hasty that beef accept developed assorted robust, and conceivably independent, means to ensure the able alignment of myelin membranes.

MLAs are alike added conspicuously agnate to blur assemblies anticipation to represent boilerplate structures on the alleyway to myelin development in assertive abyssal copepods. Myelin in copepods can be admired as an aboriginal evolutionary accession anatomy of bearcat myelin and is generated anon by axons rather than by glial cells. As apparent in Figs. 4, 6, and 9 in the abstraction of Wilson and Hartline (35), developing copepod myelin includes assemblies that are composed of bedfast vesicles/cisternae that are ample and nonspirally wrapped, which carefully resemble MLAs. It is accepted that copepods [like all invertebrates (49)] abridgement MPZ, the above adhering protein of bearcat PNS myelin (50). Whether myelin-forming copepods accept a PMP22 homolog is not yet accustomed but seems achievable accustomed that alike Caenorhabditis elegans has a abroad about of PMP22 (51). Whether or not a PMP22 homolog is complex in copepod myelin formation, the actuality that antiseptic PMP22 can abet the accumulation of blur assemblies that carefully resemble a accepted boilerplate anatomy in copepod myelin supports the acceptable mechanistic band amid PMP22’s adeptness to adapt blur anatomy and its roles in PNS myelin.

PMP22-containing MLAs additionally resemble assemblies termed “intracellular myelin–like figures” (IMLFs) that anatomy in Schwann and animal beginning branch (HEK)–293 beef aloft announcement of PMP22 (23, 52). IMLFs are composed of multilayered “whorls” of coiled blur that anatomy back overexpressed PMP22 fails to cartage to the corpuscle apparent and accumulates in the ER. The affection of MLAs and IMLFs added supports the angle that PMP22 has an built-in adeptness to both abrade blur bifold layers and advance stacking of these layers.

Our after-effects announce that the extracellular ECL1 and ECL2 loops of PMP22 accept an important role in MLA formation. This aftereffect is evocative of studies involving PMP22 bidding in HeLa corpuscle curve that showed that the protein can participate in auto homophilic interactions to anatomy an adhering PMP22 arch amid beef (43) and that these interactions can be disrupted by abacus ECL1 peptide as a GST admixture protein to the ambience surrounding the cells. Added affirmation for PMP22 arena a role in adherence amid lipid bilayers includes studies assuming announcement of PMP22 in assertive epithelia, area it appears to be complex in basic and/or stabilizing blur junctions (53–56). Both the present and accomplished studies abutment a absolute role for PMP22 in bilayer-bilayer adhesion.

Although we accept not yet anon empiric the spatial administration of PMP22 in MLAs, the backdrop of MLAs are constant with stabilization of auto homophilic interactions by the extracellular loops of PMP22, both axial the bedfast vesicles and amid the ample alien leaflets of the bedfast and ample vesicles. Auto homophilic interactions amid PMP22 molecules on the alien apparent of a annular abscess with the exoteric advertisement of a assemblage of bedfast vesicles are additionally acceptable amenable for the wrapping of the ample multilayers about a axial annular abscess in MLAs. It should be accustomed that PMP22 acceptable assumes alloyed topologies in MLAs, area bisected of the protein has its extracellular loops adverse out of the vesicles and bisected with the loops inside. This is audible from the ambiance aural myelinating Schwann cells, area the loops are consistently extracellular and could abandoned be complex in adherence amid abutting alien leaflets of the ambagious Schwann cell–extended myelin bifold membrane.

Some added tetraspan proteins accept the accommodation to adapt blur architectonics through auto homophilic interactions. The proteolipid protein (PLP) is the above protein of the CNS myelin. Back this tetraspan blur protein was antiseptic and reconstituted into lipid bilayers, it led to the accumulation of structures that the authors adapted represent layers of ample and aeroembolism vesicles (57), assemblies actual agnate to MLAs. Furthermore, the two extracellular loops of PLP accept been proposed to participate in auto homophilic interactions amid adjoining blur surfaces at the extracellular intraperiod band of CNS myelin (58). Analogous to PMP22, PLP is decumbent to mutation-induced misfolding that leads to a dysmyelinating ataxia in the CNS, Pelizaeus-Merzbacher ache (59). Intriguingly, the boilerplate interperiod ambit abstinent for MLAs in vitrified ice is 153 ± 7 Å (fig. S2). This is agnate to the interperiod ambit abstinent for beastly CNS, which is 160 to 166 Å (38). Although it now seems bright that MPZ is the above adhering protein of abiding bunched myelin beneath accustomed altitude (9, 39, 60, 61), it is still appetizing to brainstorm that PMP22 may additionally comedy a structural role in PNS myelin that, to some degree, resembles the axial role of PLP in the anatomy of CNS myelin.

Although the accommodation of PMP22 to abide auto homophilic adhering interactions may not be analytical to the adherence of complete bunched myelin, this does not avert a possibly brief but important role for such interactions in Schwann corpuscle adverse and myelin formation. It has continued been accepted that PMP22 appears to comedy an important role in these processes (7, 9, 11). Additionally, the auto adhering biochemical backdrop of PMP22 may additionally advice to balance added (noncompact) domains or junctions aural complete PNS myelin. Accession ancestors of tetraspan blur proteins that adapt blur alignment through auto homophilic protein-protein interactions is the claudins, which are basic to the alignment and stabilization of apprenticed junctions (62, 63). Claudins facilitate adherence by establishing auto homophilic interactions amid its extracellular loops to anatomy paracellular barriers and channels amid adjoining epithelial beef (64, 65). PMP22 shares ~25% arrangement character with the claudins, including a claudin burden in ECL1, suggesting that they acceptable allotment agnate folds (42). PMP22 has been begin to be a basic of apprenticed junctions in some epithelial beef (55, 66). PMP22 has additionally been apparent to be important for the candor of some of the specialized junctions that ascendancy permeability in PNS myelin (56).

Thus, a accepted affair amid the tetraspan blur proteins PLP, claudins, and PMP22 and the single-span MPZ is that all these proteins can anatomy networks of auto homophilic interactions beyond abutting lipid bilayers that access blur ultrastructure. Accustomed that the water-soluble but membrane-interactive MBP has continued been accepted to account accession of vesicles and alike of micelles (48, 67, 68), auto adhering backdrop assume to be built-in to assorted myelin proteins.

PMP22 may additionally advance MLA accumulation through added mechanisms. For example, PMP22 could balance the aerial blur curvature apparent at the end of anniversary pancaked vesicle, conceivably through cis-homophilic interactions, as has been adapted for ER blur proteins that appearance ER blur alignment (69). Additionally, it is accessible that PMP22, if oligomerized aural the aforementioned membrane, could advance blur curvature through a protein-protein bottleneck apparatus (70). To accomplish a added abundant atomic compassionate of PMP22’s role in acclimation membranes, added studies are bare to appraise whether PMP22 forms cis-homophilic interactions in membranes and to map the spatial administration of PMP22 in MLAs.

Here, we authenticate that reconstitution of PMP22 into lipid bilayers after-effects in the accumulation of MLA assemblies that allotment some affection to myelin, admitting abandoned to an extent. It was added approved that MLA accumulation depends on the akin of PMP22 about to lipid, is abased on both PMP22 ECL1 and ECL2 loops, and is disrupted by a misfolding-prone ache aberrant anatomy of PMP22. The built-in adeptness of PMP22 to adapt the assay of lipid bilayer assemblies supports the angle that PMP22 may comedy one or added absolute structural roles in myelin organization, which includes accidental to adherence beyond the extracellular amplitude amid apposed bilayers. Some of the roles may able-bodied be transient, occurring during Schwann corpuscle adverse and myelin formation. Also, although it is bright that MPZ is the above adhering protein in bunched PNS myelin, we brainstorm that PMP22 acceptable plays alcove roles in myelin adherence and/or myelin junctions that accompaniment the added about accustomed role of MPZ. This acceptable helps explain why myelin compaction is not actually abandoned alike back MPZ is actually agape out (71). It should be added that MPZ and PMP22 amid on the apparent of apposed corpuscle membranes accept been proposed to anatomy glycosylation-independent trans-heterophilic complexes (43, 72), suggesting that the adhering roles of these proteins may sometimes be anon cooperative.

Although PMP22 is anticipation to comedy assorted roles in Schwann corpuscle assay and myelin homeostasis, the accommodation of PMP22 to advance MLA accumulation appears to accommodate a acceptable biochemical appraisal for PMP22 action in acclimation blur ultrastructure. Moreover, because the accommodation of PMP22 to advance MLA accumulation is alarmingly abased on the actual folding of this protein, MLA accumulation adeptness alike be exploited as the base for an appraisal for use in high-throughput screening of baby molecules in a chase for molecules that accomplishment misfolding-prone ache aberrant forms of PMP22.

PMP22 was bidding and antiseptic as ahead described, with accessory adjustments (47, 73–75). Briefly, PMP22 was bidding in One Shot BL21 Star (DE3) Escherichia coli (Life Technologies) as a admixture protein assemble consisting of an N-terminal 76–amino acerbic articulation of the lambda repressor (which serves to drive the protein into admittance bodies) (73), followed by a His10-tag, a 7–amino acerbic linker, a thrombin break site, an 11–amino acerbic strep-tag, and, finally, the animal PMP22 sequence. The admixture protein was solubilized from admittance bodies application the zwitterionic bactericide Empigen BB (Sigma-Aldrich) and antiseptic application Ni(II)-NTA Superflow adhesive (Qiagen) (0.5 ml/1 g of aboriginal corpuscle pellet) arranged into a force column. Once apprenticed to the Ni-NTA resin, the bactericide was exchanged for DM (Anatrace), a mild, uncharged detergent, by repetitive pulsed abrasion of the cavalcade [20 cavalcade volumes (CVs) in one-half CV pulses] with 0.5% DM in 25 mM sodium phosphate absorber (pH 7.2). The admixture assemble was broken by evolution with Recothrom Thrombin (The Medicines Company) overnight. This break acknowledgment was followed by a additional ablution over Ni-NTA resin. Broken PMP22 (no His-tag) has a bashful affection for divalent metal cations, including Ni(II) (74). Broken PMP22 was eluted from the Ni(II) adhesive in a stepwise appearance application a 10 to 30 mM imidazole (Sigma-Aldrich) in a 50 mM tris (pH 8.0) buffer. The uncleaved PMP22 and the His10-tag–containing admixture break artefact remained apprenticed to the adhesive at these imidazole concentrations. Protein abstention was adjourned via SDS-PAGE, and the authentic fractions were affiliated (28). In some cases, PMP22 was antiseptic application a adjustment in which the additional Ni-NTA cavalcade acclimated to absolve the broken protein was replaced by an ion barter chromatography cavalcade eluted with a alkali gradient, about as declared by Sakakura et al. (47).

Cleaved and antiseptic PMP22 in DM micelles and a pH 8.0 absorber absolute about 20 mM imidazole, 50 mM tris, and 0.5 mM dithiothreitol (DTT) were concentrated to 1.0 mg/ml, as bent by A280 (absorbance at 280 nm) application a atomic weight of 19.2 kDa and an afterlife accessory of 44,900 OD/M·cm afore reconstitution into vesicles.

WT PMP22 (1.0 mg/ml) and the assorted PMP22 mutants acclimated in these studies were accumulated with alloyed micelles absolute 53 mM DM additional 5.3 mM POPC and 1.3 mM ESM in baptize at the LPRs declared in Results. Anniversary PMP22-mixed micelle band-aid was pipetted into dialysis buttons (Hampton Research), which were covered by hydrated dialysis blur with a atomic weight blow of 20 kDa (Spectra/Por Biotech RC Tubing) that had been pretreated by baking in 1 mM EDTA for 5 min to abolish metal ions. Buttons were dialyzed for 10 canicule at allowance temperature adjoin a absorber absolute 10 mM tris (pH 8.0), 150 mM NaCl, and 0.5 mM beginning DTT, which was afflicted daily. Protein-free abscess controls were able by bond alloyed micelles and PMP22 elution absorber calm at the aforementioned volume-to-volume arrangement as the beginning altitude and dialyzed in the aforementioned buffer. Alternatively, MLV controls were able by bond dry lipids with baptize and agitating.

After dialysis, a 750-μl sample of 20-μg PMP22 reconstituted into liposomes and dialysis absorber absolute 50% (w/v) sucrose was prepared. This sample was placed at the basal of a 5-ml polypropylene ultracentrifuge tube. A 750-μl sample of 20-μg PMP22 in DM micelles and dialysis absorber absolute 50% sucrose was placed in accession ultracentrifuge tube as a control. Dialysis absorber (3.38 ml) absolute 40% sucrose was layered on top of the liposome or micelle layer, followed by 750 μl of dialysis absorber absolute no sucrose. This created a stepwise sucrose gradient. All layers in the micelle sample absolute 0.05% DM so as to not adulterate the DM beneath the analytical micelle concentration. Samples were again centrifuged at 160,000g at 4°C for 16 hours application a Beckman L-90K Ultracentrifuge able with an SW 55 Ti rotor. After ultracentrifugation, samples were calm from the sucrose acclivity in 500-μl fractions from the top bottomward application a bottle Hamilton syringe; the fractions were analyzed by SDS-PAGE, followed by argent staining (GE Healthcare PlusOne Argent Staining Kit).

The animal KCNQ1 potassium approach voltage sensor area (Q1-VSD, residues 100 to 249) was antiseptic into DPC (Anatrace) micelles, as ahead declared (76). The Q1-VSD in micelles was again accumulated with alloyed micelles absolute 174 mM DPC and 4:1 POPC/ESM and dialyzed alongside PMP22. DPC was acclimated because the VSD has ahead been auspiciously refolded from DPC into added micelle altitude (76).

The afterward methods were acclimatized from Hasse et al. (43). DNA encoding the aboriginal extracellular bend (ECL1, residues 32 to 64) and additional extracellular bend (ECL2, residues 120 to 133) of PMP22 were polymerase alternation acknowledgment (PCR)–amplified application the afterward primers: ECL1, 5′-TCCGCGTGGATCCCCAGGAATTCCCAATGGACACGCAACTGATCTC-3′ (forward) and 5′-GCCGCTCGAGTCGACTCAAGACTGCAGCCATTCGTTTGG-3′ (reverse); ECL2, 5′-TCCGCGTGGATCCCCAGGAATTCCCAGGCACCCGGAGTGGCATCTC-3′ (forward) and 5′-GCCGCTCGAGTCGACTCAACCGTAGGAGTAATCCGAGTT-3′ (reverse). PCR articles were restriction-digested application Bam HI–HF and Sal I–HF enzymes (New England Biolabs) and ligated into a analogously digested pGEX-4T-1 agent (GE Healthcare Life Sciences). The final artefact of the articulation acknowledgment was adapted into XL1-Blue E. coli cells, and plasmid DNA was antiseptic with QIAprep Spin Miniprep Kit (Qiagen). The final constructs were absolute by sequencing and were again adapted into BL21(DE3) E. coli cells. A audible antecedents was acclimated to bathe an brief amateur ability in LB average absolute ampicillin (0.1 mg/ml). The amateur ability was again added to 1 liter of LB average and developed for 3 hours at 37°C with afraid at 230 rpm to an OD600 (optical body at 600 nm) of 0.9. Cultures were transferred to 25°C and induced over 5 hours with 1 mM isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactopyranoside. Beef were harvested by centrifugation, flash-frozen, and stored at −80°C until use.

To absolve GST and the GST admixture peptides, the corpuscle pellet from 1 liter of advance was aqueous and resuspended in 30-ml absorber NETN [50 mM tris (pH 7.5), 150 mM NaCl, and 0.5% NP-40 detergent] additional 2 mM DTT, 1 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, and lysozyme (1 mg/ml). This admixture was confused for 30 min at 4°C. Beef were sonicated at a 20% assignment aeon (30 s on, 2 min off) for 1.5 min of absolute action time on ice at 4°C. The lysate was centrifuged in a JA-25.50 rotor at 20,000 rpm for 20 min, and the afloat was calm and filtered (0.2 μm). Glutathione Sepharose adhesive (GE Healthcare Life Sciences) was able by abrasion with 2 CVs of baptize and 10 CVs of absorber NETN. For the afloat from beef acquired from a liter of culture, a 2-ml accumulated of glutathione adhesive was added and accustomed to equilibrate for 2 hours at 4°C with tumbling. The adhesive was again transferred to a cavalcade and done with 24 CVs of NETN absolute 0.2 mM DTT, followed by 24 CVs of 50 mM tris (pH 8.0) absolute 0.2 mM DTT. Protein was eluted with 50 mM tris (pH 8.0) absolute 0.2 mM DTT and 10 mM glutathione. Elution was monitored at 280 nm, and the elution accumulated was calm in fractions. Protein abstention was adjourned by SDS-PAGE, and fractions absolute authentic admixture protein were combined. To adapt these antiseptic protein solutions, we added 10% glycerol, followed by flash-freezing and accumulator at −80°C until use. Admixture peptides were added to the PMP22 dialysis altitude at final concentrations of 2.9 and 2.7 μM for GST-ECL1 and GST-ECL2, appropriately (1:1 peptide/PMP22 molar ratio), 5.6 and 5.2 μM for GST-ECL1 and GST-ECL2, appropriately (2:1 peptide/PMP22 molar ratio), or 11.2 and 10.4 μM for GST-ECL1 and GST-ECL2, appropriately (4:1 peptide/PMP22 molar ratio). GST ascendancy protein was added to the PMP22 dialysis altitude at final concentrations of 2.8 μM (1:1 peptide/PMP22 molar ratio) and 11.2 μM (4:1 peptide/PMP22 molar ratio). As controls, GST-ECL1, GST-ECL-2, and GST abandoned were accumulated with alloyed micelles absolute 53 mM DM additional 5.3 mM POPC and 1.3 mM ESM and dialyzed as declared for PMP22 reconstitutions. The final concentrations of GST-ECL1, GST-ECL-2, and GST in the reconstitutions were 2.9, 2.7, and 2.8 μM, respectively.

For abrogating stain EM grids, 2 μl of reconstituted PMP22-lipid assemblies was adsorbed to a glow-discharged 200-mesh chestnut filigree covered with a carbon-coated collodion blur (Electron Microscopy Sciences). Grids were done in two drops of baptize and decrepit with two drops of uranyl formate (0.75%) (Electron Microscopy Sciences), as declared (77). Samples were beheld application an FEI Morgagni able with a 1000 × 1000 charge-coupled accessory (CCD) camera [Advanced Microscopy Techniques (AMT)]. Abstracts to actuate the “interperiod distance” were agitated out application AMT software. About 200 abstracts were fabricated to actuate the interperiod ambit for assorted MLAs from altered images. Images for presentation were contrast-adjusted in Photoshop, and a high-pass clarify was activated to enhance adverse amid layers. No imaging adjustments were fabricated to images afore any blazon of quantification.

For cryo-EM, 3 μl of PMP22/lipid assemblies was pipetted anon assimilate glow-discharged Quantifoil R2/2 Holey Carbon (200-mesh copper) grids (Electron Microscopy Sciences) and plunged into aqueous ethane application a Vitrobot (2007, FEI) set to 60% clamminess at 22°C. Vitrobot settings included a blemish time of 3.5 s, an account of −1, and a cesspool time of 1 s. Images apparent in Fig. 2 (C and D) were calm application a Tecnai F20 electron microscope (FEI) able with a acreage discharge gun at an dispatch voltage of 200 kV beneath low-dose altitude at a deepening of ×68,661 (2.18 Å per pixel) application a defocus amount of −2.0 to 4.0 μm. Images were recorded on a 4000 × 4000 Gatan CCD camera. Images apparent in Fig. 2 (A and B) were calm application a Tecnai F30 Polara electron microscope (FEI) able with a acreage discharge gun at an dispatch voltage of 300 kV beneath low-dose altitude at a deepening of ×38,204 application a defocus amount of 5.0 to 8.0 μm and recorded on a 4000 × 4000 UltraScan CCD camera in images with a pixel admeasurement of 3.5 Å per pixel (Gatan).

For cryo-ET, bovine serum albumin–conjugated 10-nm gold nanoparticles were alloyed with the MLA sample to accomplish an acclimatized body for fiducial markers. Four microliters of the alloyed band-aid was activated assimilate the glow-discharged 200-mesh chestnut R1.2/R1.3 Quantifoil manual electron microscopy (TEM) filigree (Quantifoil) afore cryoplunging in aqueous ethane application a Vitrobot Mark III arrangement (FEI). Cryo-grids were stored in aqueous nitrogen afore imaging. Cryo-ET abstracts were calm application a JEOL JEM-2200FS acreage discharge TEM (FEG-TEM) at 200 kV (JEOL Ltd.), which is able with an in-column Omega activity clarify with a aperture amplitude of 20 eV. Single-axis angle alternation were recorded semiautomatically application the SerialEM amalgamation from −65° to 65° at 2° accession footfall (bidirectional), −6-μm defocus, with an accumulative dosage beneath 130 e−/Å−2 (78). Images were recorded on a Absolute Electron DE-20 camera (Direct Electron LP) at 24 frames per additional at a nominal deepening of ×20,000, constant in a pixel admeasurement of 0.294 nm.

Tilt alternation frames were motion-corrected afore tomographic about-face application python scripts provided by the architect (Direct Electron LP). Motion-corrected frames were acclimated for tomographic about-face in the IMOD software amalgamation application the abounding back-projection algorithm, and the 10-nm gold nanoparticles were acclimated as fiducial markers to adjust frames at the altered angle angles (79, 80). Images were adverse alteration function–corrected by phase-flipping afore about-face of the 3D volumes (binned by a agency of 2). Volume-rendered segmentations were performed manually application the Amira amalgamation (FEI Visualization Sciences Group) (78). Visualization and cine authoritative were agitated out in IMOD and Amira software packages.

For abstracts testing the furnishings of capricious the lipid-to-PMP22 ratio, abacus ECL1 and ECL2 peptides, or PMP22 mutations on MLA formation, PMP22 purifications were agitated out for anniversary accumulation of abstracts on the aforementioned day, and consecutive reconstitution abstracts were run in parallel. For anniversary set of experiments, WT PMP22 was antiseptic and reconstituted with 4:1 POPC/ESM at an LPR of 1.0 as a absolute ascendancy that was acclimated to adapt quantification. Assorted abrogating stain grids were able for anniversary reconstitution action and beheld application an FEI Morgagni able with a 1000 × 1000 CCD (AMT) camera at ×14,000 magnification. Nikon Elements software was acclimated to calculation and assort altar beheld on the filigree as MLA, confused MLA, airtight vesicles, protein aggregate, lipid sheets, or vesicles. One being quantified all abstracts sets beneath dark altitude (that is, the being counting did not apperceive the beginning variables of anniversary abstracts set). Ethics for anniversary beginning action are begin in tables S1 to S6. For presentation in figures, all allotment ethics for anniversary class were normalized to the allotment of MLAs present in the WT ascendancy for anniversary beginning grouping. The allotment of a counted commodity in an abandoned class from one agreement was disconnected by the allotment of counted MLAs in the agnate ascendancy experiment. For statistical appraisal in Figs. 4 and 6 and fig. S5, GraphPad Prism was acclimated to accomplish a Welch’s t assay to attending for statistical acceptation amid MLA accumulation in the WT ascendancy and altered conditions.

Supplementary actual for this commodity is accessible at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/3/7/e1700220/DC1

movie S1. Cryo-ET of an MLA assuming that it is composed of aeroembolism captivated vesicles (corresponding to Fig. 3B).

movie S2. Cryo-ET of an MLA assuming that it is composed of aeroembolism captivated vesicles (corresponding to Fig. 3C).

movie S3. Cryo-ET of an MLV assuming that it is composed of nested vesicles rather than aeroembolism captivated vesicles apparent in MLAs (corresponding to fig. S3B).

fig. S1. Representative examples of altar empiric in reconstitution abstracts by abrogating stain.

fig. S2. Examples of interperiod echo ambit abstracts taken for MLAs and MLVs beheld with cryo-EM.

fig. S3. MLV vesicles advised by cryo-ET.

fig. S4. Schematic assuming the alignment of PMP22.

fig. S5. Accession of GST does not abate MLA formation.

table S1. Absolute counts, percentages, and SDs of WT PMP22 reconstitutions at the LPR of 1.0.

table S2. Absolute counts and normalized ethics from images of PMP22 reconstitutions compared to protein-free and KCNQ1 potassium approach voltage sensor area (Q1-VSD) controls.

table S3. Absolute counts and normalized ethics from images of WT PMP22 reconstitutions at altered LPRs.

table S4. Absolute counts and normalized ethics from images of reconstitutions of WT and Cys-less PMP22.

table S5. Absolute counts and normalized ethics from images of PMP22 reconstitutions absolute GST-ECL1 and GST-ECL2.

table S6. Absolute counts and normalized ethics from images of PMP22 reconstitutions absolute WT or GST.

table S7. Absolute counts and normalized ethics from images of reconstitutions absolute abandoned lipids and GST, GST-ECL1, or GST-ECL2.

table S8. Absolute counts and normalized ethics from images of reconstitutions of WT PMP22 compared to PMP22 constructs with mutations in conserved residues of ECL1 and ECL2.

table S9. Absolute counts and normalized ethics from images of reconstitutions of WT and the TrJ aberrant PMP22 construct.

Acknowledgments: We accede cryo-EM accessories administration abutment from Collier. We additionally acknowledge associates of the Ohi Lab—L. Lapointe, B. Carter, and T. Iverson—for analytical account of the manuscript. We acknowledge the Vanderbilt Center for Structural Assay for abutment of the Structural Electron Microscopy Facility. Funding: This assignment was accurate by grants R01 NS058815, R01 NS095989 (to C.R.S. and M.D.O.), R01 NS066927 (to C.R.S.), R01GM104540 (to E.R.W.), R01GM1145661 (E.R.W), and NSF-0923395 (to E.R.W.), as able-bodied as grants from the Emory University, the Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta, the Georgia Research Alliance, the Center for AIDS Research at Emory University (P30 AI050409), and the James B. Pendleton Charitable Trust (to E.R.W.). K.F.M. was accurate by NIH T32 GM08320 and NSF Predoctoral Fellowship DGE090966. J.P.S. was accurate by NIH F32 GM110929. J.T.M. was accurate by T32 GM008320. Author contributions: K.F.M., J.P.S., J.T.M., A.H., C.L.L., C.M.H., Z.K., and M.D.O. as authors that contributed to abstracts and M.D.O. conducted the abstracts of this work. All authors alternate in abstracts analysis. K.F.M., J.T.M., J.L., C.R.S., and M.D.O. wrote the cardboard with ascribe from all authors. K.F.M., J.T.M., C.R.S., E.R.W., and M.D.O. conceived this assignment and directed the approaches used. Aggressive interests: The authors acknowledge that they accept no aggressive interests. Abstracts and abstracts availability: All abstracts bare to appraise the abstracts in the cardboard are present in the cardboard and/or the Supplementary Materials. Added abstracts accompanying to this cardboard may be requested from the authors. Correspondence and requests for abstracts should be addressed to C.R.S. (chuck.sanders{at}vanderbilt.edu) or M.D.O. (melanie.ohi{at}vanderbilt.edu).

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