Critical Analysis Essay Example Pdf The History Of Critical Analysis Essay Example Pdf
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In 2005, MIT assistant Nicholas Negroponte apparent an abstraction so avant-garde that it had the abeyant of convalescent the lives of millions of bodies in developing countries about the world—a $100 laptop. His eyes was to administer this low-cost, asperous computer to the atomic accouchement in elementary schools in developing nations, advice them accretion admission to knowledge, and acquiesce them to analyze and agreement with the latest technologies. He founded the One Laptop per Adolescent alignment to transform his eyes into reality. Backed by the United Nations Development Programme, OLPC acclimatized a lot of acclamation and accepting from assorted leaders and the media. However, as the time of addition neared, problems began to surface. Amid added issues, the amount of the laptop rose to $188, the antecedent buyers began to aback out, and IT abutment was minimal. As a result, the OLPC foundation bootless to accomplish its accepted auction of 150 actor laptops by the end of 2007. By 2009, alone a few hundred thousand laptops had been alien to the developing nations. Today, the OLPC action is generally cited by critics as a failure. However, instead of absolution the laptops as disappointments, it is important to appraise the annual of their decline. This compassionate can ahead accouterments in the approaching back aggravating to apparatus some added anatomy of advice and advice technology in developing nations. Accurate assay about the ability and aliment of the accouchement needs to be done in the countries afore aircraft the laptops. Laptops charge to be customized to bounded traditions and customs, so that they are adapted in their new context. Despite its antecedent setback, the OLPC action can advance its success amount by absolution go of its Western ethics and adapting its laptops to the adapted needs of the accouchement who are application them in the developing countries.
The absolute administration of the laptops credibility to an accessible abortion of the program. Back OLPC was aboriginal founded, it alone took orders in lots of 1 million. However, no developing nation could accident the basic all-important to buy these 1 actor laptops, abnormally if there was no abstracts proving the allowances of the program. OLPC was afresh affected to lower the minimum acquirement cardinal to 250,000 laptops. The founders initially anticipation that a lot of countries would be accommodating to pay for these laptops en masse, which would ensure cheaper assembly costs for alone laptops. However, the ambition nations do not acquire that abundant money; therefore, the minimum deployment admeasurement had to be bargain over time. As a aftereffect of such unrealistic goals, commitment of the laptops was low. Figure 1 shows the absolute cardinal of laptops broadcast in specific countries by the OLPC foundation. The aboriginal cardinal is the abstracts apparent on OLPC’s capital website, and the additional cardinal is the absolute cardinal of laptops in the assorted schools. A above annual of alterity amid the two numbers is that the OLPC website does not analyze amid ordered, shipped, or delivered laptops. Alike then, the absolute numbers are low, and the all-around administration is sparse. Out of the machines that were delivered to the assorted schools, it is not safe to acquire that they are all absolutely actuality acclimated by the children. In Uruguay, “27.4 percent of machines were out of bureau in a contempo poll, or added than 100,000 out of the 400,000 in the country.” Of the laptops deployed aural Uruguay, one in every four laptops was not acclimated by the schools because of adulterated and abridgement of abstruse support. This affair added reduces the cardinal of alive laptops aural the OLPC activity and amplifies the abortion of the project. Similar numbers would additionally be activate in added countries; however, no assay has been done yet to abutment this claim. The affirmation acutely suggests that the OLPC activity fell decidedly abbreviate of its antecedent goals of accouterment millions of accouchement with its XO laptops.
Figure 1. Worldwide Administration of XO Laptops
A above acumen for the abortion of the OLPC program, which would annual for its low administration numbers, is the accepting of the almsman nations that the laptops were not adapted for them. Back implementing new technologies, it is important to attending at whether or not the technologies are adapted for the ambition arena in adjustment to abstain exceptionable consequences. As Kelvin Willoughby, a assistant at Curtin University, Australia, explains, “The Adapted Technology angle credibility to the charge for ability of a assortment of abstruse options for acclimatized purposes, accurate assay of the bounded animal and acclimatized environment, normative appraisal of addition options, and the exercise of political and abstruse choice.” This analogue shows that there are a lot of factors about the technologies and the ambiance they are to be aloft in that should be advised afore bringing the technologies to the new region. The governments of the developing nations did not backpack out this “careful analysis,” and, therefore, the accepting of the laptops led to abrupt consequences. This inappropriateness of the OLPC laptops “might axis from [their] actuality deployed in a ambience absolutely altered to that for which [they were] designed.” Back absolute technologies are transferred from one arena to another, they may be inappropriate because of the new ability in that region. It is all-important to appraise the differences and ahead problems afore affective the technology. Although the OLPC laptops were advised and activated for use in developing nations, the bald abstraction of laptops is a Western one, which contributed to its inappropriateness.
Willoughby additionally claims that “there is frequently a ambit of addition abstruse bureau accessible which are acceptable for the accomplishment of primary objectives aural a acclimatized field.” It is not abundant for the technology to work—it needs to accomplish the goals in the best able manner, with the atomic adverse furnishings on the society. Therefore, a accurate assay of several candidates needs to be done afore selecting a accurate technology. According to the abstraction of technology choice, users charge to appraise concise and abiding advantages and disadvantages of anniversary of the options afore adopting new technologies. However, “in this activity there was no appraisal of aggressive technologies. In actuality there was not alike a slight application acclimatized to addition solutions.” Back the OLPC was founded, there was no cogent competition. No added laptop administration activity had done assignment on such a all-around scale. However, the abridgement of antagonism does not agreement that OLPC’s laptops are appropriate. With the development of the Intel Classmate and added netbooks, which broke into the aforementioned bazaar as OLPC, the governments were now faced with added choices to appraise for their needs. OLPC was no best their alone option, and this added antagonism additionally played a role in the atrophy of OLPC. OLPC was clumsy to appraise the needs of the bodies that were to get these laptops, and accordingly absent to its competition. As G. Zachary, a assistant at Arizona State University, notes, technologies are “push[ed]” at Africans “that are inappropriate for them artlessly to account [Westerners’] own charge for vanity and for moral reinforcement.” Abnormally in Africa, critics affirmation that there are several issues, such as HIV/AIDS and malnutrition, that are added absolute and charge to be addressed afore education. Banishment the technologies on developing nations leads to several abominable consequences. These exceptionable after-effects can advance to added acerbity and to the adjournment of the OLPC laptops.
One specific archetype of an abominable aftereffect with the OLPC projects was the acceleration of concern in the children, which could advance to bounce of abutment from parents. David Tablot, a backer of OLPC, writes that “when . . . accepting own the computer, they activate award ‘why.’ They apprehend they can absolutely do article that is allusive to them.” The Internet opens up a apple of possibilities for the accouchement application the laptops. They activate to catechism things about them and try to be like others. The founders of OLPC anticipate of this concern as adapted and animate it alike more. However, in the ambience in which these laptops were deployed, they may sometimes accompany alternating exceptionable after-effects amid the children. One such abominable aftereffect is the westernization of the children. Some advisers are anxious about “the accessible admission of western account on bounded cultures . . . With admission to the [Internet], accouchement were added accessible to disorientation from their cultural behavior and to clearing appear a added westernized culture.” The children’s concern additionally broadcast to their cultural beliefs, and a lot of them questioned their association and adopted Western standards. In bourgeois nations, which are the developing countries targeted by OLPC, ability is absolute important to the people, and the addition of this new technology threatens to adulterate that amid the children. Therefore, the parents are agnostic toward, and generally resent, the new technologies that their accouchement are application in the schools. After abutment from parents, approaching amplification of the affairs may be in danger.
Another check of the OLPC activity was the banishment of Western account on accouchement in developing nations, which generally led to criticism and acerbity about the project. In her paper, Victoria MacArthur addendum that “the claimed computer . . . [has] been advised with western metaphors in mind, and . . . the interface is absolutely acclimatized for [Westerners]. [Companies] cannot arrange these aforementioned interfaces ‘as is’ after any attention for cultural differences.” Computers were advised to be acclimated by bodies in the English-speaking world. From the blueprint of the keys on the keyboard to the affectation of the icons on the screen, the computers appearance a abundant accord of Western ability and influence. OLPC’s ambition is developing nations, which do not acquire the aforementioned cultural compassionate as Westerners and accordingly do not account as abundant from the aforementioned laptops. As researcher Emmanuel Yujuico concludes, “OLPC’s architecture . . . reflects Western biases against alone agency, but studies in amusing attitude and anthropology acquire activate allusive differences in Eastern and Western cerebral processes.” The specific accouterments and software designs of the XO laptops acclimated by OLPC reflect predispositions against Western ideologies about individualism, which are not accepted by the bodies from added cultures who are the absolute users of these laptops. Therefore, they acquire the laptops with abashing and ambiguity, which is not what OLPC accepted in its vision. Assistant Zachary, a analyzer of OLPC, argues that companies “tell [Africans] that they care to acquire these technologies . . . They care to acquire added claimed computers. They care to acquire bigger seeds. They care to do this and they care to do that.” It is important not to force the new technologies on developing countries aloof because some innovators and leaders in developed nations acquire a new abstraction to transform these countries. Zachary claims that the developing nations charge to acquire the technologies on their own in adjustment to ensure abiding alimentation of the new technologies. He gives the archetype of the quick and acknowledged accepting of corpuscle phones by Africans, which was because they themselves capital these phones. Similarly, back developing nations apprehend the charge for laptops, they will readily acquire them. Thus, OLPC can abstain criticism by rethinking its eyes and ethics and authoritative abiding that it is not banishment the laptops on the accouchement in developing nations.
In adjustment for the OLPC laptops to be adapted in their new environments, and to accomplish approaching OLPC projects successful, it is all-important to accomplish abiding that the laptops acclimate to the bounded standards and culture. Advisers from Italy assured that “strategies of ICT affiliation . . . charge be rethought and readapted to the cultural context, alienated giving a laptop the accomplished albatross for the success of the activity for academy innovation.” With the accepted action of OLPC of alone giving the laptops to the governments, there is a lot of burden on the laptops themselves. Bodies apprehend the laptops to accompany changes and to empower the children. However, it is important to accommodate the laptops to bigger fit the ambience and association of the ambition nations. Several studies acquire assured that the primary acumen for the abortion of the OLPC activity was its abridgement of application for and adaption to the bounded cultures and societies. An affinity can be fabricated to the announcement industry, area marketers accurately accomplish altered commercials for the aforementioned artefact to be apparent in altered cultures in adjustment to abode added alone to their ambition audience. If OLPC is to advance its success amount in approaching projects and deployments, it charge abode this annual of abortion and acclimate its laptops to the needs of the children. For example, the OLPC laptops accommodate the Tam Tam suite—a ambit of applications that acquiesce the accouchement to actualize their own music. However, accouchement anatomy Uruguay “noted that the music assembly affairs was clumsy to actualize music which akin the beats of their bounded music.” Accouchement acquainted that they could not adapt the music to comedy the sounds they were acclimatized to audition in their cultures. As a result, they were afraid to use the software again, which bound their adroitness and showcased the charge for OLPC to accommodate cultural ethics added into their products. The OLPC partly utilizes the Bottom of Pyramid model. However, it is important to calendar that “the BOP is not a caked block of 4 billion people. Entrepreneurs charge apprentice to articulation and advantage the astronomic aberration aural alike the bounded BOP.” Although OLPC is a nonprofit foundation, it still serves the aforementioned market. Currently, OLPC has the aforementioned deployment, abutment and architecture action for all children, behindhand of the backgrounds of its users. Therefore, OLPC needs to accept the variations in its users in adjustment to bigger serve them and accretion added accepting in the future. For example, a contempo abstraction assured that “the achievability exists of application [the laptops] as a aggregate association ability amid apprenticeship and bloom care: one laptop per adolescent equals one laptop per clinic.” In some countries, apprenticeship is not on the top of the agenda. Problems like ache and ache are added arresting and charge to be apparent urgently. Therefore, OLPC should be accessible to application their laptops for these purposes, which would bigger advice the bodies than the advised use in the classroom. Then, OLPC’s laptops would be added acceptable amid the accouchement in the developing nations.
The One Laptop per Adolescent affairs acclimatized a lot of acclaim during its actualization but bootless to accommodated its abstracted expectations. In adjustment to ensure success in the future, OLPC needs to redesign not alone its laptops but additionally its ethics and mission. With added compassionate of the bounded association and traditions, OLPC can accommodate customized laptops to the children, which could absolutely empower them and advice Nicholas Negroponte’s eyes appear true. The addition of new technologies to a arena is a awful acute process, and alike a baby aberration could advance to acute consequences. Abnormally with advice and advice technologies, the attempt of adapted technology and technology best can ensure the success of these new technologies and advice ahead abominable consequences. These concepts not alone assignment for the XO laptops of OLPC, but they could additionally serve as a framework for added projects that aim to advance activity for bodies in developing nations. These account can adviser the accession of the new programs and ensure their success. With accurate assay of and adjustment to bounded cultures, the new technologies can absolutely accomplish in their goals and advice accomplish the apple a bigger and developed place, one nation at a time.
1. I would like to acknowledge Owen Dean and Assistant Breen for their astute comments and acknowledgment for my abstract during the accumulation assay process.
2. Kenneth Kraemer, Jason Dedrick and Prakul Sharma, “One Laptop per Child: Eyes Vs. Reality,” Communications of the ACM 52, no. 6 (2009): 66.
3. Mark Warschauer and Morgan Ames, “Can One Laptop Per Adolescent Save the World’s Poor?” Journal of International Affairs 64, no. 1 (2010): 36.
4. Warschauer and Ames, “Can One Laptop,” 41.
5. Kraemer, Dedrick, and Sharma, “One Laptop Per Child: Vision,” 68. This abstracts is as of June 2009. Added laptops acquire been alien back then, but the abstracts in the table has not been adjusted.
6. Kelvin Willoughby, “Introduction: The Abstraction of Technology Choice,” in Technology Choice: A Critique of the Adapted Technology Movement (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1990), 7.
7. Ibid., 5.
8. For added analysis, see folio 6.
9. Willoughby, “Introduction,” 8.
10. Linus Andersson and Thomas Norrmalm, “Finding the Formula for Sustainable ICT: Lessons from the One Laptop Per Adolescent Activity in Rwanda” (Thesis, Uppsala University, 2010): 30. http://uu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:300573.
11. For assay of this drawback, see folio 8.
12. Nico Colombant, “Some Development Experts Criticize ‘One Laptop Per Child’ Action in Africa,” Voice of America, March 7, 2011. http://www.voanews.com/english/news/africa/Some-Development-Experts-Criticize-One-Laptop-Per-Child-117528273.html.
13. For added examples of such arty of technologies on added nations, see Everett Rogers, “Consequences of Innovations,” in Diffusion of Innovations, 5th ed. (New York: Free Press, 2003), 436–471.
14. David Talbot, “Una Laptop Por Niño,” Technology Assay 111, no. 3 (May/June, 2008): 64.
15. Kenneth Kraemer, Jason Dedrick and Prakul Sharma, “One Laptop Per Adolescent (OLPC): A Novel Computerization Movement?” (paper presented at the 44th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2011): 4.
16. Victoria McArthur, “Communication Technologies and Cultural Identity: A Critical Discussion of ICTs for Development” (paper presented at the IEEE Toronto International Conference: Science and Technology for Humanity, 2009): 913.
17. Yujuico, “Cautions from One Laptop Per Child,” 10.
18. Colombant, “Some Development Experts.”
19. Andrea Mangiatordi and Magda Pischetola, “Sustainable Addition Strategies in Education: OLPC Case Studies in Ethiopia and Uruguay,” Organizational, Business, and Abstruse Aspects of the Ability Association Pt II 112 (2010): 99.
20. See Kraemer, Dedrick and Sharma, “One Laptop Per Adolescent (OLPC): Novel,” 4; Kraemer, Dedrick and Sharma, “One Laptop Per Child: Vision,” 66; Mangiatordi and Pischetola, “Sustainable Innovation,” 95; and Victoria MacArthur, “Communication Technologies,” 912.
21. McArthur, “Communication Technologies,” 913.
22. Under this model, companies try to serve their articles to those who accomplish beneath than $2 a day. By targeting the beginning bazaar of the poor, the abstraction is to accomplish a accumulation while additionally accomplishing charity.
23. Renee Kuriyan, Isha Ray and Daniel Kammen, “How to use Technology to Spur Development,” Issues in Science and Technology 24, no. 2 (Winter 2008): 73.
24. Paul Fontelo et al., “Extending the Allowances of One Laptop Per Adolescent to Health,” BMJ 337 (December 01, 2008): 22. doi:10.1136/bmj.a2459. http://www.bmj.com/content/337/bmj.a2459.short.
Andersson, Linus and Thomas Norrmalm. “Finding the Formula for Sustainable ICT: Lessonsfrom the One Laptop Per Adolescent Activity in Rwanda.” Thesis, Uppsala University, 2010.
Colombant, Nico. “Some Development Experts Criticize ‘One Laptop Per Child’ Action in Africa.” Voice of America, March 7, 2011.
Fontelo, Paul, Fang Liu, Kai Zhang, and Michael Ackerman. “Extending the Allowances of One Laptop Per Adolescent to Health.” BMJ 337 (December 01, 2008). doi:10.1136/bmj.a2459.
Kraemer, Kenneth, Jason Dedrick and Prakul Sharma. “One Laptop Per Adolescent (OLPC): A Novel Computerization Movement?” Cardboard presented at the 44th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2011, 1–10. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=5718728.
———. “One Laptop Per Child: Eyes Vs. Reality.” Communications of the ACM 52, no. 6 (2009): 66–73.
Kuriyan, Renee, Isha Ray, and Daniel Kammen. “How to use Technology to Spur Development.” Issues in Science and Technology 24, no. 2 (Winter 2008): 70–4.http://vnweb.hwwilsonweb.com/hww/jumpstart.jhtml?recid=0bc05f7a67b1790ef048455c0eadfff11e5f113df796596fd01f7d666a01b6fc395bdcea32217721&fmt=P.
Mangiatordi, Andrea and Magda Pischetola. “Sustainable Addition Strategies in Education:OLPC Case Studies in Ethiopia and Uruguay.” Organizational, Business, and Abstruse Aspects of the Ability Association Pt II 112 (2010): 94–104.
McArthur, Victoria. “Communication Technologies and Cultural Identity A Critical Discussion of ICTs for Development.” Cardboard presented at the IEEE Toronto International Conference: Science and Technology for Humanity, 2009, 910–14.
Talbot, David. “Una Laptop Por Niño.” Technology Assay 111, no. 3 (May/June 2008): 60-6. http://find.galegroup.com.ezproxy.bu.edu/gtx/infomark.do?&contentSet=IAC-Documents&type=retrieve&tabID=T003&prodId=ITOF&docId=A178894555&source=gale&srcprod=ITOF&userGroupName=mlin_b_bumml&version=1.0.
Warschauer, Mark and Morgan Ames. “Can One Laptop Per Adolescent Save the World’s Poor?”Journal of International Affairs 64, no. 1 (September 22, 2010). http://find.galegroup.com/gps/infomark.do?&contentSet=IAC-Documents&type=retrieve&tabID=T002&prodId=IPS&docId=A244159018&source=gale&srcprod=ITOF&userGroupName=bost84371&version=1.0.
Willoughby, Kelvin. “Introduction: The Abstraction of Technology Choice.” In Technology Choice: A Critique of the Adapted Technology Movement, 3-14. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1990.
Yujuico, Emmanuel. “Cautions from One Laptop Per Adolescent in Marketing Abstruse Addition to LDCs.” California Management Assay (2010). http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/29551/1/Cautions_from_one_laptop_per_child_(LSERO).pdf.
Critical Analysis Essay Example Pdf The History Of Critical Analysis Essay Example Pdf – critical analysis essay example pdf
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